The modern day Iraq occupies the territory that historians have considered as the location of the earliest civilization. In more geographical terms, contemporary Iraq corresponds to Mesopotamia, as it is known from the Old Testament documentations. According to many Western religious traditions and mythologies, the ancient territory of Mesopotamia was rich in resources, leading its neighbors as a land of abundant water resources, abundant wildlife, and verdant vegetation. As a result, from the very early stages in history, Mesopotamia attracted hordes of people from the neighboring lands. By around 6100 BC, most of the areas in this early state had been occupied and settled by immigrants mainly, from the Iranian and Turkish highlands. During the ancient times, southern Mesopotamia, the most affluent region in Mesopotamia, was referred to as Sumer. Historically, it had not been established on the exact date when the Sumer settled in the area.

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